Glossary

B

Biodiesel

A biodegradable transportation fuel for use in diesel engines that is produced through the transfer of organically- derived oils or fats. It may be used either as a replacement for or as a component of diesel fuel


Biofuel

A fuel made from renewable biological sources. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, and biodiesel. Biofuel sources include, but are not limited to: corn, soybeans, flaxseed,rapeseed, sugarcane, palm oil, raw sewage, food scraps, animal parts, and rice


Biomass

Plant material such as wood, grains, agricultural waste, and vegetation that can be used as an energy source


Bioprocess

Any process that uses complete living cells or their components (eg, bacteria, enzymes, chloroplasts) to obtain desired products


Bitumen

Petroleum that exists in the semisolid or solid phase in natural deposits – it is the molasses-like substance which can compromise anywhere from 1 to 18 per cent of the oil sand


C

CANDU

Canada Deuterium Uranium. It's a Canadian-designed power reactor of PHWR type (Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor) that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide) for moderator and coolant, and natural uranium for fuel


Carbon capture and storage (CCS)

The removal and storage of carbon dioxide from high-emitting processes such as coal-fired power generation or cement manufacture before it enters the atmosphere


Cellulosic ethanol

Ethanol derived from plant material such as switch grass, wood chips instead of food grade grains such as corn. Its production is much more energy efficient than that for conventional ethanol


Clean energy

Clean energy is energy that is produced without burning fossil fuels. Examples include wind, solar, hydro-electricity, geothermal, nuclear power


Convero

AMEC's web-based integrated project management system


D

Decommissioning

The retirement of a facility, including decontamination and/or dismantlement


Deepwater

A term often used to refer to offshore projects located in water depths greater than around 600 feet where floating drilling vessels and floating oil platforms are used, and unmanned underwater vehicles are required as manned diving is not practical


Downstream

The refining process of crude oil into finished fuel products


E

E&C

Engineering and construction


Energy-efficiency ratio

A number representing the energy stored in a fuel as compared to the energy required to produce, process, transport, and distribute that fuel


EPC

Engineering, procurement and construction


EPCM

Engineering, procurement, construction and maintenance. EPCM also refers to engineering, procurement and construction management


F

FEED

Front-end engineering and design


FPSO

Floating, production, storage and off loading vessel


I

In situ

In its original place; in position; in situ recovery refers to various methods used to recover deeply buried bitumen deposits, including steam injection, solvent injection and fire floods


Infrastructure

Basic physical and organisational structures needed for the operation of a society or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth.


InSAR - Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

The technology is used to protect people, wildlife and the environment by monitoring areas threatened by landslides and earth fissures.


M

Midstream

Processes that go beyond simple separation and dehydration, but are typically not as advanced as refinery processes. Generally involving LNG, LPG, GTL, CTL, CTM, etc.


P

Potash

Any of several compounds containing potassium, especially soluble compounds such as potassium oxide, potassium chloride, and various potassium sulphates, used chiefly in fertilisers


Programme management

The process of managing multiple ongoing inter-dependent projects. Programme management provides a layer above project management focusing on selecting the best group of programs, defining them in terms of their constituent projects and providing an infrastructure where projects can be run successfully but leaving project management to the project management community.


Project management (PM)

The application of modern management techniques and systems to the execution of a project from start to finish, to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, quality, time and cost, to the equal satisfaction of those involved.


Pyrolysis

A unique process that chemically breaks down organic materials, literally cracking their molecules, by heating them up in an oxygen-starved chamber. It's a closed process that doesn't involve combustion, so emissions are strictly controlled, and three materials emerge at the end of it: a synthetic methane-like gas, a diesel-like oil and carbon-rich char.


R

Renewables

Energy generation from natural resources such as sunlight (solar), wind, rain, tides (water), biomass and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished).


S

Subsea

Subsea is a general term frequently used to refer to equipment, technology, and methods employed to explore, drill, and develop oil and gas fields that exist below the ocean floors. This may be in 'shallow' or 'deepwater' to distinguish between the different facilities and approaches that are needed


SURF

Subsea Umbilicals, Risers and Flowlines (offshore project piping)


T

Topsides

Facilities for processing oil, water and gas; the upper processing section of an offshore oil or gas production platform.


U

Unconventional oil

Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method. Oil industries and governments across the globe are investing in unconventional oil sources due to the increasing scarcity of conventional oil reserves. The oil sands are a type of unconventional oil deposit.


Underground mining

Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, mainly those minerals containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel and lead but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds.


Upstream

The exploration, production and transportation of oil and gas.


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